European islands are home to many species and habitats of conservation concern, including endemic as well as threatened biodiversity. Endemism is largely concentrated on islands in the Mediterranean and Macaronesian regions. There are significant knowledge gaps concerning current and potential future impacts of climate change on European island biodiversity. However, there is enough evidence to demonstrate that impacts already take place and are likely to increase in future. Processes related to climate change which are particularly relevant in the island context include sea level rise and the possibility of increasing incidence of invasive alien species. Measures available to support the adaptation of biodiversity to climate change for its long-term preservation are similar to those recommended for other areas. However, opportunities for enhancing connectivity beyond individual islands are limited. Ex situ and translocation measures might be considered for endemic island taxa where no other options exist. Priority attention should be given to islands in the Mediterranean and Macaronesian region both because of their high endemism and because of expected changes in precipitation patterns, and within these islands to endemic species which are already considered threatened. Further efforts in monitoring and research are recommended.
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