This report presents a country profile for 19 countries of West and Central Africa, considering the status, distribution, biodiversity, uses, threats and drivers of change for their mangroves. Although there is considerable work being undertaken to research this habitat at the national, regional and global level, there are still significant gaps in information, emphasizing a need for continued efforts to improve assessment in the region. This report concludes that there has been a decline in mangrove cover in the region over the last quarter of a century, and that there will be consequences as a result of this decline.Resource Type: Reports
Diseases in the marine environment are integral to the regulation of marine ecosystems. However, in recent decades, unprecedented disease outbreaks have brought into focus the implications of human impacts upon marine disease. Climate change acts in synergy with other anthropogenic factors, such as pollution and over-exploitation, to drive changes in disease dynamics with important socio-economic consequences.
Climate Change and Marine Diseases: The Socio-Economic Impact reviews this emerging field of research and presents case studies illustrating how the impact of climate change on marine disease has significant implications for human health, food security and business sustainability. A number of key recommendations are presented on how best to move forward in terms of unraveling the processes behind marine diseases and to integrate this knowledge into the wider policy realm.Resource Type: Reports
The world's oceans provide goods, services and functions fundamental to the livelihoods of hundreds of millions of people worldwide. Planning for their sustainable use requires a more detailed understanding of the marine environment than is available at present: an understanding that will only become possible through improved levels of monitoring and assessment. This publication is the result of inter-agency and national government collaboration. It represents part of UNEP's contribution to evaluating the feasibility of establishing a Global Marine Assessment, a process that would regularly report on the state of the marine environment. The report presents a snapshot of assessments and related scientific activities that were in progress at the end of 2002. It considers and recommends various ways in which a future Global Marine Assessment process could integrate these activities, and identifies the thematic and geographical gaps that need to be addressed.Resource Type: Reports
This report draws together scientific understanding of deep-water sponge grounds alongside the threats they face and ways in which they can be conserved. Beginning with a summary of research approaches, sponge biology and biodiversity, the report also gives up-to-date case studies of particular deep-water sponge habitats from around the world. These include the spectacular giant glass sponge reefs of British Columbia – a relic of the time of the dinosaurs – and the diverse sponge kingdom of Antarctica. Long-overlooked, recent research now shows that deep-water sponge grounds form complex, slow-growing and long-lived habitats in many parts of the global ocean. As well as forming local biodiversity centres, deep-water sponges are also storehouses of novel chemical compounds, some of which show promise in the fight against cancer and other diseases.Resource Type: Reports
In response to the global challenge, for a systematic conservation planning approach to MPA establishment, set by the Convention on Biological Diversity and other international agreements and action plans, there are now many initiatives to develop ecologically representative MPA networks. This report describes the progress being made in 30 national and 35 sub-national ecological MPA network initiatives, using information from the literature, MPA practitioners and planners, and conservation experts. The report explores the diverse range of approaches applied, at various spatial and geographical scales, to demonstrate how MPA networks can be established in practice, and how they can be adapted to different needs and priorities.Resource Type: Reports
In 2003, UNEP and the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) of UNESCO published 'A survey of global and regional marine environmental assessments and related scientific activities' in response to the call of the UN General Assembly (Resolution 57/141) and the Heads of States and Governments at the World Summit on Sustainable Development to establish a regular process for the global reporting and assessment of the state of the marine environment. Today, the urgency to understand the state and functioning of our oceans is even greater than ever. In December 2006, the 61st session of the United nations General Assembly adopted a new resolution (A/RES/61/222) on Oceans and the Law of the Sea, renewing the commitment of Member Stats to support the implementation of the start-up phase: the Assessment of Assessments of the Regular Process.Resource Type: Reports
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