A new, systematic review of the evidence on the effectiveness of ecosystem-based approaches to adaptation (EbA) has been carried out to review the effectiveness of EbA and highlight the knowledge gaps. This research was undertaken as a collaboration between BirdLife International, UNEP-WCMC, IIED and the University of Cambridge.
Ecosystem-based approaches to adaptation (EbA) integrate the use of biodiversity and ecosystem services into an overall strategy for helping people adapt to climate change. To date, however, insight into these approaches has often been based on anecdotal case studies of local people’s use of ecosystems. Although they are informative, they can provide rather limited insight in terms of measuring and evaluating the effectiveness of EbA, especially compared with technical or structural adaptation measures. A new, systematic review of EbA evidence has been carried out to interrogate the scientific literature and review studies from around the world, from many different ecosystems and adopting a wide range of adaptation approaches utilising ecosystems. We conclude that EbA approaches are effective and deserve greater policy attention and political support to reach their full potential.Resource Type: Reports
While developed countries control most of the world's financial resources, it is the developing world that is home to most of its biological resources. This study provides an overview of the extent to which industry in the developed world relies on the biodiversity of the developing world. The first section of the report reviews the direct consumptive use, with fisheries and forestry the largest components. The remaining chapters examine two specific industrial inputs where biodiversity serves as an information source: the use of wild genetic resources in plant breeding and the use of substances derived from the wild in the pharmaceutical industry. The project was funded under the UK Government Darwin Initiative.Resource Type: Reports
This report has gathered lessons that have been learned since these events that will be relevant to future management of the coasts in the context of severe weather events and other potential consequences of global warming. More than ever it is essential to consider the full value of ecosystem services - that is the benefits that people derive from ecosystems - when making decisions about coastal development.Resource Type: Reports
Feeding a rapidly expanding human population will require a large increase in the supply of agricultural products during the coming decades. This may lead to the transformation of many landscapes from natural vegetation cover to agricultural land use, unless increases in crop yields reduce the need for new farmland. Here, we assess the evidence that past increases in agricultural yield have spared land for wild nature. We investigated the relationship between the change in the combined energy yield of the 23 most energetically important food crops over the period 1979–1999 and the change in per capita cropland area for 124 countries over the same period.
Our results show that land-sparing is a weak process that occurs under a limited set of circumstances, but that it can have positive outcomes for the conservation of wild nature.Resource Type: Journal Papers
This summary document outlines the need for spatial data on tree species as a tool for conservation action. It introduces plans for a tree species mapping programme that will build on the forest mapping information management expertise of UNEP-WCMC. A Global Tree Conservation Atlas will be one of the main outputs of the Global Trees Campaign. The Campaign focuses on trees as flagship species for conservation of ecosystems and landscapes, and enables local people to carry out rescue and sustainable use operations. Working in partnership with organizations around the globe, the Global Trees Campaign aims to save the world's most threatened tree species and their habitats through information, conservation and wise use.Resource Type: Reports
The EnRisk project – Environmental Risk Assessment for European Agriculture was finalized in October 2004. This project, coordinated by ECNC, was funded by the European Commission as a Concerted Action under the theme 'Quality of Life and Management of Living Resources' of the Fifth Framework Programme for Research, Technological Development and Demonstration Activities.
The report, written by a team of international environmental experts and conservationists, describes an innovative methodology and the results of a three-year study that applied agri-environmental indicators and European datasets to identify the main environmental risk areas in Europe. It covers soil erosion, nutrient enrichment, pesticide use and their integrated risks for biodiversity and landscapes.Resource Type: Reports
This report presents a country profile for 19 countries of West and Central Africa, considering the status, distribution, biodiversity, uses, threats and drivers of change for their mangroves. Although there is considerable work being undertaken to research this habitat at the national, regional and global level, there are still significant gaps in information, emphasizing a need for continued efforts to improve assessment in the region. This report concludes that there has been a decline in mangrove cover in the region over the last quarter of a century, and that there will be consequences as a result of this decline.Resource Type: Reports
This report reviews the current state of knowledge on the biodiversity impacts (both positive and negative) of biofuel production, with an emphasis on the potential influence of current and future government policies. Although the focus is primarily on first generation biofuels, second and third generation biofuels are also discussed. The potential for sustainability criteria to ameliorate biodiversity impacts is also assessed.Resource Type: Reports
A UN-REDD workshop on ‘Identifying and promoting ecosystem co-benefits from REDD+’ was held from 27th-29th April 2010 in Cambridge, UK, convened by UNEP-WCMC. Forty-four people participated in the workshop, including representatives from five UN-REDD pilot countries, one observer country, and a number of different institutions, agencies and NGOs.Resource Type: Reports
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