This report provides a synthesis of the current state of knowledge regarding the natural capital of water related ecosystems and habitats, and offers an overview of the innovative approaches that can support the analysis of the links between interconnected ecosystems. It analyses the linkages across coastal ecosystems (seagrasses, mangroves, and coral reefs) and the ‘value added’ in terms of ecosystem services (benefits) provided by these linkages as opposed to the services provided by just one system studied in isolation. The linkages between ecosystems are examined under consideration of environmental, economic, management and social aspects and recommendations are provided for integrating this new paradigm into cross-sectoral environmental practices.Resource Type: Reports
Biodiversity conservation is increasingly expected to reduce poverty where the two coincide. Yet conservation and poverty are multifaceted concepts and the linkages between them are complex and variable; whether and how conservation contributes to poverty reduction in practice will depend on the specific nature of those linkages.
To unravel this complexity we explored the portfolio of Fauna & Flora International, an international conservation organization operating in some of the poorest countries and regions. We examined reports from 88 projects and categorized the rationales, approaches and outcomes of a sample of 34 livelihoods-focused projects.
This study presents a global analysis of forest cover and forest protection. An updated Global Forest Map (using MODIS2005) provided a current assessment of forest cover within 20 natural forest types. This map was overlaid onto WWF realms and ecoregions to gain additional biogeographic information on forest distribution. Using the 2008 World Database on Protected Areas, percentage forest cover protection was calculated globally, within forest types, realms and ecoregions, and within selected areas of global conservation importance.
Results have policy relevance in terms of the target of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), reconfirmed in 2008, to effectively conserve “at least 10% of each of the world’s forest types”. Regular updates of these analyses would allow progress towards achieving that target to be monitored.Resource Type: Journal Papers
Technical study of the reporting requirements for high level treaties or biodiversity-related conventions, and related questions.Resource Type: Reports
A comprehensive project to transform UNEP-WCMC into a Centre of Excellence that evaluates and highlights the many values of biodiversity and puts authoritative biodiversity knowledge at the centre of decision-making.Resource Type: Reports
In response to global declines in biodiversity, some 190 countries have pledged, under the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), to reduce the rate of biodiversity loss by 2010. Moreover, this target has recently been incorporated into the Millennium Development Goals in recognition of the impact of biodiversity loss on human well-being. Timely information on where and in what ways the target has or has not been met, as well as the likely direction of future trends, depends on a rigorous, relevant, and comprehensive suite of biodiversity indicators with which to track changes over time, to assess the impacts of policy and management responses, and to identify priorities for action. How far have we come in meeting these needs, and is it sufficient?Resource Type: Journal Papers
Diseases in the marine environment are integral to the regulation of marine ecosystems. However, in recent decades, unprecedented disease outbreaks have brought into focus the implications of human impacts upon marine disease. Climate change acts in synergy with other anthropogenic factors, such as pollution and over-exploitation, to drive changes in disease dynamics with important socio-economic consequences.
Climate Change and Marine Diseases: The Socio-Economic Impact reviews this emerging field of research and presents case studies illustrating how the impact of climate change on marine disease has significant implications for human health, food security and business sustainability. A number of key recommendations are presented on how best to move forward in terms of unraveling the processes behind marine diseases and to integrate this knowledge into the wider policy realm.Resource Type: Reports
Araucaria araucana (Monkey Puzzle), a southern South American tree species of exceptional cultural and economic importance, is of conservation concern owing to extensive historical clearance and current human pressures. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were used to characterise genetic heterogeneity within and among 13 populations of this species from throughout its natural range.
Although populations are geographically divided into Chilean Coastal, Chilean Andes and Argentinean regions, this grouping explained only 1.77 of the total variation. Within Andean groups there was evidence of a trend of genetic distance with increasing latitude, and clustering of populations across the Andes, suggesting postglacial migration routes from multiple refugia. Implications of these results for the conservation and use of the genetic resource of this species are discussed.Resource Type: Journal Papers
Aquilaria spp. (Thymelaeaceae) are the principal source of Gaharu, a valuable resin, yet information about their reproductive ecology is almost entirely lacking. Individuals of six species (A. beccariana, A. crasna, A. filaria, A. hirta, A. malaccensis and A. microcarpa) in cultivation in Indonesia were investigated to assess reproductive phenology, pollination, seed production and germination. Seed production and seedling dispersion were also assessed in natural populations of A. beccariana, A. malaccensis and A. microcarpa in Kalimantan.
The results indicate that Aquilaria spp. have high reproductive potential, but suggest that seed dispersal might be limited in natural forests. The implications of these results for the management of Aquilaria spp. are discussed.Resource Type: Journal Papers
The Convention on Biological Diversity anticipates the establishment of a clearing house mechanism to promote and facilitate technical and scientific cooperation in the field of conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity. This paper was prepared by WCMC at the request of the Interim Secretariat, as an input to discussion on the form the clearing house for biodiversity information would take, and the manner in which it would operate. The research was supported by the UK Department of Trade and Industry.Resource Type: Reports
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