When forests that would have been lost or degraded are retained or restored through REDD+, they deliver ‘multiple benefits’ in addition to protecting or enhancing carbon stocks. These ecosystem-based benefits may include conservation of forest biodiversity, water regulation, soil conservation, timber, forest foods and other non-timber forest products. REDD+ can also lead to direct social benefits, such as jobs, livelihoods, land tenure clarification, carbon credit payments or enhanced participation in decision-making under stronger governance. The UN-REDD Programme works with countries to address both ecosystem-based and social benefits, as well as a range of other REDD+ relevant areas. This brochure focuses on the ecosystem-based benefits of REDD+, which often depend upon forest biodiversity.Resource Type: Reports
The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) is currently discussing the development of a mechanism for reducing emissions from deforestation in developing countries (RED). An effective RED mechanism could provide an unprecedented opportunity to contribute towards the goals of a range of multilateral environmental agreements and mechanisms, including the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), by helping to ensure that forests continue to provide vital ecosystem services, conserve biodiversity, and enhance livelihoods. The design and implementation of the mechanism will affect the degree to which these other benefits are obtained.Resource Type: Journal Papers
UNEP-WCMC, in collaboration with SNV in Viet Nam, has developed a briefing on participatory biodiversity monitoring in REDD+. Some national REDD+ programmes, including Viet Nam’s, are currently considering the use of participatory biodiversity monitoring within REDD+. This brief presents the key issues that national REDD+ programmes may want to consider if they decide to develop participatory biodiversity monitoring. The briefing covers why monitor biodiversity in REDD+, what is participatory biodiversity monitoring, what are the concerns about participatory biodiversity monitoring, and what is needed for participatory biodiversity monitoring.
Overall, participatory biodiversity monitoring can benefit REDD+ programmes as a relatively cost-effective and sustainable component of national forest monitoring systems. Monitoring biodiversity impacts of national programmes, including REDD+ can provide information on how countries are achieving the objectives of multilateral environment agreements, and existing national policies. In particular, safeguard information systems for national REDD+ programmes can benefit from the information provided by participatory biodiversity monitoring approaches. Additionally, participatory biodiversity monitoring can empower and encourage local stakeholder engagement in REDD+ processes and contribute to the full and effective participation of stakeholders, in particular women, indigenous peoples and local communities. REDD+ schemes that can demonstrate biodiversity benefits may be more attractive to gain support for the actions. However, participatory biodiversity monitoring is likely not to be the best solution in situations where complex equipment or expertise is needed to collect the data or where abstract indices of biodiversity are applied.Resource Type: Reports
We explore the implications of REDD design and implementation options on biodiversity conservation and ways to link REDD with biodiversity conservation. From both a mitigation and biodiversity perspective, the most important immediate steps are to ensure that REDD is included in the new global climate agreement and maximizes the area of tropical forest conserved. It may also be possible to include guidelines or incentives within a REDD framework or in national implementation to channel funding to areas of high biodiversity. However, if the immediate steps above are not taken first, REDD will reach neither its mitigation nor its biodiversity conservation potential.Resource Type: Journal Papers
Recent climate talks in Bali have made progress toward action on deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries, within the anticipated post-Kyoto emissions reduction agreements. As a result of such action, many forests will be better protected, but some land-use change will be displaced to other locations. The demonstration phase launched at Bali offers an opportunity to examine potential outcomes for biodiversity and ecosystem services. Research will be needed into selection of priority areas for reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation to deliver multiple benefits, on-the-ground methods to best ensure these benefits, and minimization of displaced land-use change into nontarget countries and ecosystems, including through revised conservation investments.Resource Type: Journal Papers
REDD+, as discussed by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, is a mechanism to incentivise Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation, as well as the conservation of forest carbon stocks, sustainable management of forests and the enhancement of forest carbon stocks. Actions under REDD+ can potentially provide biodiversity benefits, but there is also a need to avoid any risks of environmental harms from REDD+. A new report, launched in Kinshasa on 5 July 2012, presents selected results of spatial analyses to explore potential biodiversity benefits and risks from REDD+ in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The report is the output of a collaboration between the DRC’s Direction des Inventaires et Aménagement Forestiers (DIAF) of the Ministère de l'Environnement, Conservation de la Nature et Tourisme, the Observatoire Satellital des Forêts d’Afrique Centrale (OSFAC) and the United Nations Environment Programme World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC), with support from the UN-REDD Programme.Resource Type: Reports
Between 2000 and 2005, we estimate that 1.75 million ha of forest were lost from protected areas in humid tropical forests, causing the emission of 0.25–0.33 Pg C. Protected areas lost about half as much carbon as the same area of unprotected forest. We estimate that the reduction of these carbon emissions from ongoing deforestation in protected sites in humid tropical forests could be valued at USD 6,200–7,400 million depending on the land use after clearance. This is > 1.5 times the estimated spending on protected area management in these regions. Improving management of protected areas to retain forest cover better may be an important, although certainly not sufficient, component of an overall strategy for reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD).Resource Type: Journal Papers
UNEP-WCMC has developed operational guidelines to assist countries to implement biodiversity safeguards for REDD+. The summary report, containing the operational guidelines, can be found here.Resource Type: Reports
This publication brings together eight original articles by experts to tackle head on some of the most difficult questions facing us all:
* How a stable climate and a productive biosphere can be secured together.
* Why this is an opportunity for green growth.
* How a closer partnership between the multilateral environmental agreements, in particular the Convention on Biological Diversity and the Framework Convention on Climate Change, can help.
Analyses of the spatial relationships between carbon, co-benefits and socio-economic context can support planning and decision-making at national and sub-national scales. When such spatial analyses are based on data developed at an appropriate scale, done in consultation with a wide range of stakeholders, they can help to prioritise among the different benefits and services under consideration and the actions that might best deliver them.
Ecuador is a country with high forest cover and very high biodiversity. However, Ecuadorian forests are under pressure from deforestation and resource exploitation. The government is addressing the issue by planning for a high quality REDD+ mechanism that maximises benefits for the climate, the environment and people. This report presents the result of spatial analyses to support this planning process.Resource Type: Reports
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