The IPCC 4th Assessment Report (AR4) concluded that climate change will have significant impacts on many aspects of biological diversity. These impacts will include effects on ecosystems, on their component species and genetic diversity within species, and on ecological interactions. The implications of these impacts are significant for the long-term stability of the natural world and for the many benefits and services that humans derive from it. Because of the importance of these impacts and of climate change itself, there has been a great deal of recent research, which has added to the evidence base. This review draws on recent research to summarise advances since the IPCC AR4 in our understanding of the impacts of climate change on biodiversity. The evidence for these impacts comes from three principal sources: direct observation; experimental studies; and modelling studies.
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